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English Composition I
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Persuasive






Arguments have 3 main elements
Logos – logic, data
Ethos – Ethics, credibility of information
Pathos – People, human side/face


3 elements to argumentative ¶


3 elements to argumentative ¶

Assertion – thesis or claim to be proven

The drug Perspexix has worked, but in a very limited way.


3 elements to argumentative ¶

Evidence – specific and direct (and cited)

The drug Perspexix has worked, but in a very limited way. Clinical trials conducted over several years showed that it improved people’s vision, but with common negative side effects like nausea and high blood pressure (Smith 23).


3 elements to argumentative ¶

Analysis - explanation of how evidence supports assertion

The drug Perspexix has worked, but in a very limited way. Clinical trials conducted over several years showed that it improved people’s vision, but with common negative side effects like nausea and high blood pressure (Smith 23). Thus, it is only useful for patients in the most severe of cases who don’t already have serious medical conditions.


Determine your subject
Something you have definite views about
Something others are discussing

Find credible sources about subject

Determine WHY you feel as you do
What evidence/sources have convinced you

Organize reasons into scratch outline
Which points are most significant
What order do they need to be in?

Determine what alternate views exist
Choose ones reader will likely know
Determine how to present them
Argue against, if you have the evidence
If not, present weight of other evidence

Determine background reader needs
Definitions or explanations of terms?

Determine solutions, if any, are available
Be honest – don’t claim miracles
Be as specific as you can
What do you want to change?

Confirm Logos, Ethos, Pathos elements

Re-organize scratch outline

Write essay
following outline,
emphasizing evidence and
being defensive, not offensive