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English Composition I
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Cause / Effect

Causes tell us what leads up to subject

Effects tell us what comes from/after subject

Multiple Causes/Effects

College attendance is up because
Higher numbers of youth
More need for life-long learning
New technology in workplace
Lower wages for standard jobs

Select Few Causes - Effects

College attendance is up because
America’s move to service industries
Different definition of success in society

Chain Cause - Effect

Begin with one cause – one effect
Slowing economy causes lower tax receipts

That effect causes a new effect
Lower tax receipts cause University budget cuts

and so on,
University budget cuts cause hiring freeze

and so on,
Hiring freeze causes cancellation of classes

Until we reach your final result
Class cancellations cause you to not graduate

Cause/Effect Exercise


What organization works best?
Most important to least?
Least important to most important?
Causes, then effects?
Effects, then causes?
Causes quickly, then effects in detail?